> [Humanitarian Response Index - DARA](http://daraint.org/humanitarian-response-index/ 'markdown') > > [www.integrita.sspa.it](http://integrita.sspa.it/?page_id=1712 'markdown') > >J. Isham, D. Kaufmann, L. Pritchett, "Governance and Returns on Investment: An Empirical Investigation", _World Bank Policy Research Working Paper_ 1550/1995. > >######AUTORIA > >Daniel Duranstati > >Aluno Erasmus, Trabalho realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional, da licenciatura em Administração Pública, da Universidade de Aveiro" /> Aid Effectiveness | Glossary

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palavras chave: aid, quality, effectiveness, development
INTRODUCTION

The effectiveness of aid measures in which aid contributes to the development of a country involved in the cooperation. The countries of the so-called ''donors'', embark on a program of cooperation with the countries that have some difficulties, or who are in developing countries called ''Beneficiaries''. The cooperation takes place through different types of aid. The humanitarian aid that is when it comes to reacting to a crisis (which is a conflict or a natural disaster caused by man). Aid through development policies, which does not consist only in providing drinking water or decent roads, but also the trade is utilized as a tool for development. So you open up markets to exports from poor countries and encouraged them to trade more with each other. More than half the money spent to help poor countries prviene by the European Union and by its member countries. The European Union is the largest donor in the world.

THE DEBATE

Aid effectiveness is a subject in which it is already a debate for over 10 years. There are now several schools of thought, certain contrary, certain to please. Analysts such as Friedman, Bauer or Easterly, have launched violent criticisms, arguing that the aid was in charge of state bureaucracies, the perpetuation of poor governance, enrichment of the ruling classes in poor countries, or were simply a waste. While the other hand, another school of thought argues that these arguments, even if partly true, are exaggerated. Sachs, Stiglitz, Stern and others have noted that although in some cases the aid has failed, in some countries has been able to sustain growth and poverty reduction and avoid other performance worse. These analysts argue that many weaknesses of this instrument is to be attributed more to the donor countries and the beneficiary. Since most of the aid is given to political allies and not used to support the development.

Some of these figures as Sachs, are supporting an instrument (Human Respons Index) independent, which is in charge of identifying and promoting good practices of donors contributing to greater transparency, accountability and impact in humanitarian actions. HRI is supported by the largest humanitarian organizations (such as OCHA, IFRC and UNHCR) and some of the largest universities like the University of Bonchum and Columbia University. From any of the relationships DARA, we understand that the nineties to now there have been major changes in the humanitarian level especially. Humanitarian aid would become much more effective, more efficient, rigorous, functional. The operators have grown professionally and organizations also are improved in the logistics and management. There has been a very positive evolution, however, were some problems to be solved and some negative trends. As often happens in these cases, the greatest enemy is the policy, are governments, with their inconsistency and inability of the political system to consider humanitarian aid as a moral obligation first, that invests at all levels, from the political to the operational level.

CONCLUSIONS

The intense pessimism on aid effectiveness expressed by some analysts appears to be exaggerated and based on analysis wrong: there is a positive causal relationship between aid and growth to growth. At the same time, it is not possible to conclude that aid has always worked or who can not work better. There are many countries that have received large amounts of aid have stagnated or worse, and much aid has been wasted, stolen, or otherwise used to support countries with poor governance. The evidence suggests, however, that aid aimed at growth in media really led to an increase of growth itself. Aid has helped to sustain growth in Mozambique and Uganda over the past decade, policies and institutions were far from ideal, and have had an important role in stabilizing Sierra Leone after the suspension of hostilities. Aid has helped to sustain growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia during the Suharto regime, even in the seventies and eighties, when the institutions were weak, corruption was a problem and the policies were less than ideal. Finally, the policy discussions should not only focus on how to determine the limits of the aid on growth but rather on how these limits can be extended and how aid could be made even more effective in sustaining growth and development.

REFERENCES

S. Radelet, M. Clemens, R. Bhavnani, "Counting Chickens When They Hatch: the Short-Term Effect of Aid on Growth", Center for Global Development, Working Paper 44/2004. ォFinance and Developmentサ, 3/2005.

Humanitarian Response Index - DARA

www.integrita.sspa.it

J. Isham, D. Kaufmann, L. Pritchett, "Governance and Returns on Investment: An Empirical Investigation", World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1550/1995.

AUTORIA

Daniel Duranstati

Aluno Erasmus, Trabalho realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional, da licenciatura em Administração Pública, da Universidade de Aveiro

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